28 December 2012

2012 年度汉字 --改


2012 年度汉字出炉了好几天,马来西亚的年度汉字选出了 “改”这个单字,表示大家都期待政局、生活能有所改变。


2012 年,马来西亚上演了多场集会、游行与示威。“哦”这个字,虽然没有出现在入围名单里,但却非常适合概括这些频繁的示威活动~

造字解说


我 & 哦 的由来

我,早期甲骨文像一种有许多利齿的武器,是戌*  的变形,即超级的戌,无人可敌的威猛战器。

造字本义:手持大戌,呐喊示威。晚期甲骨文简化了齿形。

金文承续晚期甲骨文字形。

篆文有所变形,利齿状被写成了“禾”,整个字形由甲骨文的独体字变成了“禾”、“戈”组合的合体字。

当“我”演变成代词后,后人再加“口”另造“哦”,表示呐喊示威

14 December 2012

21-12-2012

如果 21-12-2012 真是世界末日,

那么我的博文就发不完了,

还有好多话来不及说......  



06 December 2012

暖化?别闹了!


这本书,《 暖化? 别闹了! 》华文版才一共 205 页,从 135 – 205 页的注释与参考文献就占了 70 页,也即是无关重要的内容就占了本书的 1/3 的版位。

书价 RM 41.49,似乎有种欺骗消费人的嫌疑。如果是这样也罢,让人失望的事还在后头呢。如果要形容这本书,就只有一个字---- “烂”。

【可点击放大图片】

《暖化? 別鬧了! 》     作者: 隆柏格
Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming / by: Bjorn Lomborg

虽然这书里面也提出了造成暖化的各种人为因素,但说到解决方案,则是让人吐血,不但没有对症下药,还拖泥带水扯到与环保无关的其他问题上去。

其实,说白了,就是在斤斤计较,为政府计算开支!作者计算到若要保持平均温度不继续上升,减碳及停止全球暖化的恶化,所要付出的金钱代价是个天文数字!

作者提议,若把对应全球暖化的金钱拿来救济饥民[1],在海边建造防水堤[2],冬天时提供完善暖气系统[3]等,做好各种应对全球暖化与其所带来灾害的措施,就能挽救更多生命。

然而,这些只能说是头痛医头,脚痛医脚的方法,根本没有把全球暖化的根源-- -- 即减低碳排放量的问题给解决掉,!

虽然暖化带来的灾难[4]是一年比一年频繁与严重,悲伤的是联合国全球暖化会议并未取得积极进展,而且,这些年来,联合国全球暖化会议还余留着《 暖化? 别闹了! 》这套理论的影子。

如果当下还再继续这样计较而迟迟不付诸于行动,那么日后恐怕就要付出更高代价!

作者这是拯救自己的名利[5],拯救政府,拯救商业集团[6],而不是在拯救地球与人类!(阅读报告·完·Ally Theanlyn

[1]多年来非洲难民需要庞大资金来给予援助
[2]应对冰川融化,海平面上升。
[3]暖气系统完善了,任冬天再冷,也不会再有人被冻死。
[4] 干旱导致农作物失收,风灾,大雨及水灾对农田居所的破坏。
[5] 作者是阴谋论者,卖书是收入来源之一,早前另一著作为《持疑的环保论者》。
[6]担忧石油业被绿色能源取代

另一本书的摘要:-

点击连接---> 改变世界的6


延伸阅读:-

另外,全球暖化的成因也成为争议性问题。阴谋论者与假专家 (非气候专家)否认全球暖化是人类活动所造成的。而全球暖化气候专家则坚持人为因素是主要因素,同时承认自然现象如太阳黑子活跃期会加剧暖化情况。

气候专家邀请阴谋论者及关注暖化问题的非气候学术专家进行辩论,然而屡次邀请皆石沉大海。气候专家也不满非此领域的“专家”在没有亲自收集数据以及没有做观测与研究就随意在不相干的经济杂志上发表否定全球暖化的论文误导读者。

网络摘文(新闻):-

(1) Fox News Climate Coverage 93% Wrong, Report Finds

25-Sept-2012 Primetime coverage of global warming at Fox News is overwhelmingly misleading, according to a new report that finds the same is true of climate change information in the Wall Street Journal op-ed pages.

Both outlets are owned by Rupert Murdoch's media company News Corporation. The analysis by the science-policy nonprofit Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) finds that 93 percent of primetime program discussions of global warming on Fox News are inaccurate, as are 81 percent of Wall Street Journal editorials on the subject.

"It's like they were writing and talking about some sort of bizarre world where climate change isn't happening," study author Aaron Huertas, a press secretary at UCS, told LiveScience.

"It's clear that we're not having a fact-based dialogue about climate change," Huertas added.

The report, available online, focused on Fox News and the Journal because of both anecdotal and academic reports suggesting high levels of misleading climate chatter in each. UCS researchers combed through six months of Fox News primetime programs (from February 2012 to July 2012) and one year of Wall Street Journal op-eds (from August 2011 to July 2012), for discussions of global warming.
Fox's climate problems

The researchers found that Fox News and the Journal were consistently dismissive of the established scientific consensus that climate change is happening and that human activities are the main driver.
For example, a statement aired on a primetime Fox News show on April 11 says, "I thought we were getting warmer. But in the '70s, it was, look out, we're all going to freeze."

The statement refers to some research in the 1970s that suggested a cooling trend, exacerbated by pollutants called aerosols (also known as smog). However, a greater number of papers, which represented consensus in the science community, in the 1970s predicted warming, according to Skeptical Science, a climate change communication website maintained by University of Queensland physicist John Cook. Temperature records have since improved, revealing the cooling trend was confined to northern landmasses.
The most common climate mistakes on Fox News involved misleading statements on basic climate science, or simple undermining and disparaging of the field of climate science. For example, on March 23, one on-air personality referred to global warming as a "hoax and fraud."

Misleading opinions

The misrepresentations in Wall Street Journal op-eds similarly twisted the science and disparaged the field, UCS said, though there were also examples of disparaging individual scientists, including calling NASA climate scientist James Hansen a "global-warming alarmist."

One March 9 column by Robert Tracinski called global warming a "bubble" and decried the "failure of the global warming theory itself" and "the credibility of its advocates."

Fox News and the Wall Street Journal did not respond to LiveScience's requests for comment. The organizations have not responded to UCS either, Huertas said, though they were informed of the report before it was made public.

The goal of the report, according to the UCS, is not to shut down legitimate debate on the appropriateness of various climate policies.

"It is entirely appropriate to disagree with specific actions or policies aimed at addressing climate change while accepting the clearly established findings of climate science," the authors wrote. "And while it is appropriate to question new science as it emerges, it is misleading to reject or sow doubt about established science — in this case, the overwhelming body of evidence that human-caused climate change is occurring."

The organization called on News Corp. to examine their climate-change reporting standards and to help their staff differentiate between opinions on global warming and scientific fact.
"This is happening no matter what, so we can have a sober adult conversation about it and figure out what to do, or we can turn it into another hot-button ideological issue," Heurtas said. "Frankly, we already have enough hot-button ideological issues. I don't think we need another one."


(2)  Fossil fuel subsidies in focus at climate talks

03 DEC 2012, DOHA, Qatar

03 DEC 2012, DOHA, Qatar (AP) — Hassan al-Kubaisi considers it a gift from above that drivers in oil- and gas-rich Qatar only have to pay $1 per gallon at the pump.

"Thank God that our country is an oil producer and the price of gasoline is one of the lowest," al-Kubaisi said, filling up his Toyota Land Cruiser at a gas station in Doha. "God has given us a blessing."

To those looking for a global response to climate change, it's more like a curse.

Qatar — the host of U.N. climate talks that entered their final week Monday — is among dozens of countries that keep gas prices artificially low through subsidies that exceeded $500 billion globally last year.

Renewable energy worldwide received six times less support — an imbalance that is just starting to earn attention in the divisive negotiations on curbing the carbon emissions blamed for heating the planet."We need to stop funding the problem, and start funding the solution," said Steve Kretzmann, of Oil Change International, an advocacy group for clean energy.
His group presented research Monday showing that in addition to the fuel subsidies in developing countries, rich nations in 2011 gave more than $58 billion in tax breaks and other production subsidies to the fossil fuel industry. The U.S. figure was $13 billion.

The Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has calculated that removing fossil fuel subsidies could reduce carbon emissions by more than 10 percent by 2050.

Yet the argument is just recently gaining traction in climate negotiations, which in two decades have failed to halt the rising temperatures that are melting Arctic ice, raising sea levels and shifting weather patterns with impacts on droughts and floods.

In Doha, the talks have been slowed by wrangling over financial aid to help poor countries cope with global warming and how to divide carbon emissions rights until 2020 when a new planned climate treaty is supposed to enter force. Calls are now intensifying to include fossil fuel subsidies as a key part of the discussion.

"I think it is manifestly clear ... that this is a massive missing piece of the climate change jigsaw puzzle," said Tim Groser, New Zealand's minister for climate change.

He is spearheading an initiative backed by Scandinavian countries and some developing countries to put fuel subsidies on the agenda in various forums, citing the U.N. talks as a "natural home" for the debate.

The G-20 called for their elimination in 2009, and the issue also came up at the U.N. earth summit in Rio de Janeiro earlier this year. Frustrated that not much has happened since, European Union climate commissioner Connie Hedegaard said Monday she planned to raise the issue with environment ministers on the sidelines of the talks in Doha.

Many developing countries are positive toward phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, not just to protect the climate but to balance budgets. Subsidies introduced as a form of welfare benefit decades ago have become an increasing burden to many countries as oil prices soar.

"We are reviewing the subsidy periodically in the context of the total economy for Qatar," the tiny Persian gulf country's energy minister, Mohammed bin Saleh al-Sada, told reporters Monday.

Qatar's National Development Strategy 2011-2016 states it more bluntly, saying fuel subsides are "at odds with the aspirations" and sustainability objectives of the wealthy emirate.

The problem is that getting rid of them comes with a heavy political price.

When Jordan raised fuel prices last month, angry crowds poured into the streets, torching police cars, government offices and private banks in the most sustained protests to hit the country since the start of the Arab unrest. One person was killed and 75 others were injured in the violence.

Nigeria, Indonesia, India and Sudan have also seen violent protests this year as governments tried to bring fuel prices closer to market rates.

Iran has used a phased approach to lift fuel subsidies over the past several years, but its pump prices remain among the cheapest in the world.

"People perceive it as something that the government is taking away from them," said Kretzmann. "The trick is we need to do it in a way that doesn't harm the poor."

The International Energy Agency found in 2010 that fuel subsidies are not an effective measure against poverty because only 8 percent of such subsidies reached the bottom 20 percent of income earners.

The IEA, which only looked at consumption subsidies, this year said they "remain most prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, where momentum toward their reform appears to have been lost."

In the U.S., environmental groups say fossil fuel subsidies include tax breaks, the foreign tax credit and the credit for production of nonconventional fuels.

Industry groups, like the Independent Petroleum Association of America, are against removing such support, saying that would harm smaller companies, rather than the big oil giants.

In Doha, Mohammed Adow, a climate activist with Christian Aid, called all fuel subsidies "reckless and dangerous," but described removing subsidies on the production side as "low-hanging fruit" for governments if they are serious about dealing with climate change.

"It's going to oil and coal companies that don't need it in the first place," he said.
___
Associated Press writers Abdullah Rebhy in Doha, Qatar, and Brian Murphy in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, contributed to this report


(3) Former climate change skeptic now says global warming is man-made

July 31, 2012- He finally came around to what other climate scientists have been spouting for years. Richard A. Muller, a physics professor at the University of California-Berkeley, announced over the weekend that his much-publicized investigation into climate data has found that humans' production of carbon dioxide is causing the world to slowly warm up. And this process could speed up dramatically in the coming years.

Muller's conclusions attract special attention because of his vocal self-styling as a converted climate change skeptic. Muller criticized global warming studies for sloppy and self-serving data selection and a lack of transparency that obscured errors; he then lambasted fellow scientists for circling the wagons and calling any climate change deniers wrong. Muller says he's still upset that the American Physical Society declared the evidence for warming "incontrovertible" a few years ago in an official statement.

"We don't do things in science that are incontrovertible," Muller said in an interview with Yahoo News.

Muller took matters into his own hands and embarked on his own investigation into the data with his daughter Elizabeth and a team of scientists two years ago. His Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project attracted funding from the Charles Koch Charitable Foundation, the nonprofit outfit of a wealthy businessman who denies that global warming is happening. Three years later, Muller ended up surprising himself when his research confirmed everything those same studies that drew his skepticism concluded, and then some. Muller says his study's results are more reliable than many previous ones because he intentionally avoided the data pitfalls he objected to, such as only using a portion of the global temperatures available. (He expounds on his methods here.)

Muller's study has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, but he says he plans to do so at some point. One climate scientist, Benjamin D. Santer, told the Los Angeles Times he thinks posting the study online and not in a journal is in "the spirit of publicity, not the spirit of science" and may do more to hurt the global warming cause than help it. But Muller wants to get feedback on his methods and to share his results with everyone, avoiding what he sees as a secrecy and lack of transparency that surrounded earlier climate change studies.

Though Muller is now entirely convinced that the Earth is warming due to man-made causes, he still expresses disdain for people who try to raise passions around the issue by pointing to local weather events, such as the drought scorching up America's Midwest right now, as proof of the phenomenon. (He attributes the drought to La Niña, a temporary cooling of the ocean.) The effects of global warming on local weather patterns are unknown, and even as two-thirds of the world has heated up, another one-third has shown a gradual cooling over the past 250 years, he says. The overall effect is a troubling global warming, but Muller has no patience for simplifications that stray from the truth.

"I'm personally very worried," he says of global warming. Muller says that so far the warming has been "tiny," but that everything points to the process speeding up. "I personally suspect that it will be bad."

Muller is now wading into another controversy, by endorsing the process of natural gas extraction called fracking for developing countries, which tend to rely more on coal. Coal production creates more carbon dioxide, but fracking has also drawn its share of environmentalist critics.
"I believe the only kind of action that is sustainable is that which is profitable, and fortunately we can do that," he says. "We can become much more energy efficient."




19 Sept 2012, WASHINGTON (AP) — In a critical climate indicator showing an ever warming world, the amount of ice in the Arctic Ocean shrank to an all-time low this year, obliterating old records.

The ice cap at the North Pole measured 1.32 million square miles on Sunday. That's 18 percent smaller than the previous record of 1.61 million square miles set in 2007, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. Records go back to 1979 based on satellite tracking.

On top of that, we're smashing a record that smashed a record," said data center scientist Walt Meier. Sea ice shrank in 2007 to levels 22 percent below the previous record of 2005.

Ice in the Arctic melts in summer and grows in winter, and it started growing again on Monday. In the 1980s, Meier said, summer sea ice would cover an area slightly smaller than the Lower 48 states. Now it is about half that.

Man-made global warming has melted more sea ice and made it thinner over the last couple decades with it getting much more extreme this year, surprisingly so, said snow and ice data center director Mark Serreze.

"Recently the loss of summer ice has accelerated and the six lowest September ice extents have all been in the past six years," Serreze said. "I think that's quite remarkable."

Serreze said except for one strong storm that contributed to the ice loss, this summer melt was more from the steady effects of day-to-day global warming. But he and others say the polar regions are where the globe first sees the signs of climate change.

"Arctic sea ice is one of the most sensitive of nature's thermometers," said Jason Box, an Ohio State University polar researcher.
What happens in the Arctic changes climate all over the rest of the world, scientists have reported in studies.
The ice in the Arctic "essentially acts like an air conditioner by keeping things cooler," Meier said. And when sea ice melts more, it's like the air conditioner isn't running efficiently, he said.

Sea ice reflects more than 90 percent of the sun's heat off the Earth, but when it is replaced by the darker open ocean, more than half of the heat is absorbed into the water, Meier said.
Scientists at the snow and ice data center said their computer models show an Arctic that would be essentially free of ice in the summer by 2050, but they add that current trends show ice melting faster than the computers are predicting.

|

03 December 2012

各种传言都不足信‧美国太空署驳2012末日论

转载:星洲·国际 (美国‧纽约1日讯)12月21日,会是世界末日吗?

踏入12月,距离传说中的世界末日只剩3周。有人把这传言当笑话听,但亦有人却抱寧可信其有心態,甚至有青少年担心得寢食难安,甚至有自杀倾向。美国科学家就反驳各式末日论以释除恐惧,並狠斥散播谣言的人“邪恶"。

末日谣言和恐惧源自对马雅历法的错误理解,认为第13个伯克盾历周期结束,就是世界末日。已故阿塞拜疆裔美国作家西欣在1976年著书中称,美索不达米亚的苏美尔人文献中,有提及一枚名叫Nibiru的流浪行星,不绕任何恒星公转,会在2012年12月21日撞向地球,毁灭全人类。

行星撞地球只是幻象

美国太空总署(NASA)科学家驳斥了这说法。天体生物学家莫里森说:“这说法完全是错的,只是创作出来的幻象。"

NASA在最近设立的资讯网页亦说:“若Nibiru或X行星真的存在,2012年会撞向地球,天文学家早在至少十年前就可侦测到,现在即使用肉眼都看得到。"对於有传地球的磁场会突然逆转、地球会运行近3万光年跌入银河系中央的黑洞等,科学家都一概否定。

年轻人寢食难安想自杀

有关另一广泛流传的说法,指整个地球会在12月23至25日断电。太阳物理学家古哈塔库尔吉承认,现时太阳进入活跃期,电磁能量增加,可对地球的电子和导航系统有影响,但跟以往同类情况没有分別。

莫里森批评:“这些末日论,有人会当作笑话,有人会觉得神秘,亦有一班人很忧虑。"他指NASA收到大量来自深感忧虑人士的查询电邮和信件,当中大部份是年轻人和孩子,因为担心世界末日而寢食难安,甚至有自杀倾向。

他说:“在互联网散播谣言嚇唬孩子的人,很邪恶。"

各式末日论
‧马雅历法指2012年12月21日世界末日,流浪行星Nibiru撞击地球,毁灭人类
‧地球磁场会突然逆转
‧地球运行近3万光年,墮入银河系中央的黑洞
‧全地球12月23至25日断电,漆黑一片

气候变化更可怕
地球最大威胁来自人类

人类对於世界末日的预言一直就有,但直到今天,没有一个实现。例如,1982年出现的“九星连珠",还有《圣经‧启示录》中表明2011年5月21日,上帝將因为人类的罪孽而毁灭世界的预言都失效。
专家认为,担心人类命运的焦点不应放在各种宇宙灾难,而应该集中在更实在的问题,例如气候变化。太阳物理学家亚当斯说:“在2012年,这年年底及未来,地球面对最大的威胁,只是来自人类本身。"人类对於自然生態的过度攫取,也成为自然灾害发生的诱导,甚至主导因素。最典型的要数近年来的海平面上升问题。海平面上升是由全球气候变暖、极地冰川融化、上层海水变热膨胀等原因引起的。

因此,与其相信那些不切实际的末日预言,不如脚踏实地保护好我们身边的生態环境。人类真正的“诺亚方舟",是立即行动起来,保护生態、保护环境。

俄罗斯版“方舟"

被称为“诺亚方舟"的壳形酒店由俄罗斯雷米工作室设计,並受到国际建筑师协会减灾建筑项目的支持。“诺亚方舟"酒店外观呈壳形,这使得建筑各部份受力均衡,因此,该建筑也可以抵御地震影响。此外,透明的酒店外壳保证了日光可以透入房间,减少了对照明需求,达到节能的目的。为了確保室內明亮,建筑物外壳上还铺有一层自我清洁涂层。

壳形酒店是一个安全、自给自足的生物圈。建筑內部温室般的环境不仅使植被繁茂,而且提昇了空气质量,並提供了充足的食物来源。壳形酒店利用太阳能电池板和雨水收集係统为酒店住客提供能源和水源。

日本版“方舟"

日本版“诺亚方舟"小巧而实用。且不说世界末日是否会来临,作为地震、海啸频发的日本,发明应急逃难的小型“诺亚方舟"是很有必要的。日本的这款“诺亚方舟"是由日本CosmoPower公司製造的,方舟为球形,直径约1.2米,有四个座位,一个舱口,一扇玻璃窗及两个通风排水孔。救生舱由玻璃钢製成,这是因为玻璃钢比钢轻,但比钢更结实,这也使得救生舱可以漂浮在水面上,並且可以承受一定的碰撞。救生舱体积也足够小,普通家庭均可將其放置在家中,外观为亮黄色,灾后救援过程中容易搜救。目前,日本的这款“诺亚方舟"已经开始销售,標准版售价为3800美元。

中国新疆版“方舟"

新疆生產建设兵团农一师塔里木河南岸的农业连队的陆政海害怕2012年世界末日来临,洪水淹没家园,所以把家中所有积蓄拿出来製造了这艘船,以便大家可以在船上避难。

陆政海介绍,这艘相当於內陆河道中型舰船的大船,下水后將成为塔里木河流域最大的船,设计总长21.2米,宽15.5米,高5.6米,三台柴油发动机总动力与540匹马力相当,排水量140吨,目前已使用钢材60余吨,木材近10吨,建成后自重將达到80吨,全部由自己独立设计和製造。

法国版“方舟"

法国著名建筑设计师文森特‧卡勒波特设计了一艘匪夷所思的“未来版诺亚方舟"Lilypad,犹如一朵巨大的百合花盛开在海面上,可供5万人同时居住。

“未来版诺亚方舟"呈圆盘形状,直径达到1000米,上面修建有一些从数十米到数百米之间高低不等的流线型建筑,犹如花瓣一样。“未来版诺亚方舟"是一个真正的“双棲海上城市"———它的上半部份露出海面,是一座与陆地建筑没有区別的建筑;而整个城市的下半部份则浸没在水下,又令它犹如船只一样可以在海面上四处漂流。方舟上的设施几乎是应有尽有。据悉,它將拥有世界上最

大的海上体育馆、圆形剧院,医院、户外公园、高尔夫球场,让“海上居民"像居住在陆地上一样方便愜意。

2012年的12月21日倒底是不是世界末日也许也只有到了那天才会知道,但是即使12月21日不是世界末日,但世界上有些城市却也正在面临著末日消亡,一起来看世界八大即將消亡的城市,究竟有哪些呢!

冈比亚·班珠尔
“死亡"原因:海边水位提昇。
海洋水位提昇已经是全球化现象,对於冈比亚这个西非小国,他们的首都班珠尔正面临著被日渐上升的海水侵蚀甚至覆盖的危险。

意大利·那不勒斯
“死亡"原因:火山爆发。
座落在那不勒斯海湾的维苏威火山,每100年就会爆发一次,当年曾摧毁庞贝城,而最近一次爆发则是在1944年。一旦爆发,那不勒斯的400万居民將面临生命威胁。

意大利·威尼斯
“死亡"原因:下沉。
水城在过去1000年里其实一直在下沉,但近几个世纪,它的下沉速度在加快,过去100年它已经下沉了24厘米。政府开展了工程计划以保护城市的下沉,但结果如何则没有人可以预计。

俄罗斯·伊凡诺沃
“死亡"原因:人口缩减。
前苏联时代纺织品中心,大约有44.8万的人口,但自从1990年开始,女性人口超过男性、出生率下降、死亡率增加等等原因令人口锐减,年轻人不断迁移到不远的莫斯科,这个城市已经全部看不到现代化的工业。

美国·三藩市
“死亡"原因:地震。
根据加利福尼亚大学的研究,在2086年之前,三藩市有75%的机会遭遇一场7级以上的大地震。

墨西哥·墨西哥城
“死亡"原因:陆地下沉,食水短缺。
坐落在含水土层之上,城市中2000万居民每次取地下水饮用,城市都会產生下陷的可能。
据估计,城市中部份地方在过去100年里下降了9米。而更糟糕的是,城市下方土层中的水份,已经出现乾涸的跡象。

美国·底特律
“死亡"原因:人口缩减。
从1950年起,底特律的人口已经减少三分一,由於城市失业率超过10%,预计到2030年前,人口都会持续缓慢但稳定减少。在2100年前,底特律可能已经面目全非。

马里·廷巴克图
“死亡"原因:荒漠化荒漠化,也即是沙漠中的沙丘逐步掩盖绿洲。
撒哈拉沙漠南部边缘的几个城市都遇到这样的威胁,其中危机最大的就是廷巴克图。这个歷史超过1000年的城市,部份地区已经半埋於沙中。

27 November 2012

染髮剂过敏‧英国妇女死亡

(星洲日报/国际)(英国‧伦敦26日讯)千万別小看染髮过敏!英国一名妇人麦凯贝,疑似使用了染髮剂后便昏迷不醒,成为植物人,经过1年多的治疗后仍然宣告不治,染髮剂公司已对此展开调查。

38岁的麦凯贝固定每6週就会染髮一次,去年10月她购买了莱雅公司(L’Oreal)的染髮剂后,自行在家染髮,却突然感到无法呼吸,紧急送医后陷入昏迷状態。在经过13个月治疗后,近日她仍然不幸过世。
目前尚未確定染髮剂就是造成麦凯贝死亡的元凶,但她的丈夫说:“当时她染完髮,立即告诉我她觉得很不舒服、不能呼吸,在送往医院的途中,她曾一度失去心跳"。目前莱雅公司已对染髮剂展开调查。为確保安全,任何染髮剂使用前48小时都应该先做皮肤过敏测试。

23 November 2012

《以阿拉之名》

第一章摘要:阿拉伯民族主义诞生于七世纪的阿拉伯半岛贫瘠沙漠。当时,一名叫穆罕默德的普通商人把半岛上彼此对立的部落团结起来,置于名为伊斯兰的新宗教大扇下。

穆罕默德声称,他肩负的政治使命,是为了回应二十年来神透过加百利天使之口头传达给他的天启。这些“天启”以阿拉伯文记录『古兰经』成为经典。

穆罕默德年幼丧亲,由外祖父与叔叔相继抚养长大,定居在艳阳毒辣的城市麦加,当时,有人这么形容麦加“不见水流…… 一小片可以让眼睛休息一下的绿草都没有…… 住在那里的人,只有商人。”

穆罕默德虽然住在城市,却吸收了周围沙漠游牧民族的刻苦文化---注重阶层,一板一眼,不轻易改变。身为改革者,他把一种新的秩序感注入这种价值体系中。

十几年来,穆罕默德在麦加一直有少许支持者。西元622 年,眼看商人对他的威胁越来越大,他决定逃到今天名为麦地那的一个城市。穆斯林把这次出走视为伊斯兰的立国大事。

穆罕默德在麦地那结集支持者,率众打败异己。战胜之后,他在部落文化中注入更强烈的忠诚心,将追随者纳入“宗教共同体”( ummah ) 之下。穆罕默德的机智与远见多半来自阿拉伯半岛的基督教与犹太教的影响,他从中吸收了一神教的概念。古兰经里尊称这些异教徒为 “圣典之人” ( 有经者 )。不过,穆罕默德对社会比对神学更感兴趣。

他向彼此对立的阿拉伯部落灌输的远见,打造了一个国家,核心是 “伊斯兰律法” ( shari’a )即把宗教融于世俗的体制规范,此后,伊斯兰法律就成为阿拉伯社群意识的核心。

穆斯林把世界分为“和平之地” dar – al - Islam )与 “永久战争之地”(dar – al - harb)。伊斯兰准许信徒基于战略因素,对基督教徒和犹太教徒暂时休兵,但其教理还是明言,休兵只是战时停止战争,伊斯兰仍会不断致力于征服非回教徒。

古兰经同时也埋下仇恨的种子:“对抗那些收到圣典,不信阿拉的人”。古兰经的另一篇韵文又说:“谁要追随伊斯兰以外的宗教就要排挤他,从此之后他就归到失败者那边。”

基督教和伊斯兰教都是传教式的信仰,都有着向世界弘扬宗教的野心,所以一直都是竞争对手,在教义上都把彼此视为异端。这助长了如今在基督教和伊斯兰世界被定义为民族主义的情感。民族主义不只是群体之爱,也要靠仇恨才能壮大。在两边文明中,对自己人的忠诚,要靠对外人的恐惧,嫉妒,仇恨,才能成立。

古兰经上有明训:“勿掀起战争,阿拉不喜欢侵略者。”但穆罕默德并未因此而停手,他为了取得平衡,鼓吹大家投入“圣战”( jihad )七个世纪前,赫勒顿写道:“在穆斯林社群中,圣战是宗教义务,因为穆斯林的使命普及天下,不论通过劝说或武力,人人都有让非信徒去信奉伊斯兰教的责任。”时至今日,许多穆斯林仍旧认为自己有这种宗教义务。

穆斯林坚决自己拥有解决生活疑难的答案,当时的巴格达都以自己的天文学家,数学家,建筑师,诗人及自然科学家为傲。那正是阿拉伯的黄金时代,但却猝然而止,成为烙印在阿拉伯人基因中的怀古遗恨。后来,阿拉伯人为此失落而自责,还有一股愤怒比骄傲更为张显的民族主义。

长久以来,穆斯林禁闭门户的政策,打造了一个方向一致但却毫无生气的文明。在西方帝国主义时期,并非所有阿拉伯人都安于现状,有一群阿拉伯人知识分子很欣赏生气勃勃的现代价值观。但值得一提的是,这些人很少质疑伊斯兰文化的根底,不像西方人从文艺复兴时期就开始自我质疑。

有些改革派支持文化妥协,“伊斯兰现代主义”就是其中的一个产物。它主张伊斯兰可以把西方的优点跟伊斯兰传统宗教的精髓相互融合,但这概念却得到很小的回响。摘自《以阿拉之名》Ally Theanlyn 23-11-2012

穆斯林地区不同民族的信徒在强大的土耳其帝国政权管理下很长一段时间是相安无事,直到英国人的到来与欲夺取自家穆斯林政权的侯赛因·伊本·阿里相互勾结后,造就了延续到今天还无法解决的阿拉伯回教世界与西方国家的复杂恩怨………

21 November 2012

全球 30 家名牌服装使用含毒材料制衣

绿色和平最新调查发现“30品牌服装含毒

转载自【星洲日报/国际】(中国北京20日讯)继运动品牌、户外服饰品牌之后,绿色和平週二公佈最新的一项调查发现,全球接近30家时尚品牌的服装在生產过程中使用了有毒有害物质。这近30家品牌中包括 ArmaniVictoria’s SecretCalvinKleinZara Levi's 等国际知名品牌。

所检测出的有毒物质涉及壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚、邻苯二甲酸酯以及偶氮染料释放出的致癌芳香胺。

配合绿色和平《全球时尚品牌有毒有害物质残留调查》,该组织週二在北京举行了一场另类时装秀“毒线”,模特儿以重症室为舞台,揭示华衣云裳背后不为人知的残酷事实。


29 国採购 141 样本检测

绿色和平组织污染防治专案主任赖倩如说明,这次检测是在全球包含中国、台湾等 29 个国家和地区,採购 141 件衣服样本进行 NPE 残留检测。

绿色和平组织检测结果发现,在 29 个国家和地区购买的样本中,有 25 个国家和地区的样本测出 NPE;所有品牌皆有 1 件以上服饰测出壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(NPE);141 件样本中有 89 件(佔63%)测出 NPE,也发现有塑化剂和致癌芳香胺存在。

赖倩如指出,在台湾採购的 2 件样本为 Levi's 男装 T 恤和 Zara 童裤,2 件都有检测出有毒有害物质。其他国家和地区採购的样本中,抽测 8 Calvin Klein 样本,有 7 件被检测出 NPE9 Gap 样本有 7 件含 NPE9 ESPRIT 样本有 6 件含 NPE9 Tommy Hilfiger 6 件含 NPE

赖倩如说,这次检测 Zara 共送验 10 件,6 件含 NPE1 件有塑化剂,2 件有芳香胺,是服饰含有独有害物质种类含量最多的品牌,而 Tommy Hilfiger Armani 样本中,塑化剂含量最高。

由人类生產製造·NPE不存在於自然界

赖倩如说明,NPE 是一种由人类生產製造的化学物质,不存在於自然界,当 NPE 进入污水处理场或环境中,会分解成具有持久性、生物累积性且会干扰內分泌系统的壬基酚(NP),因此危害性相当严重,部份国家和地区已经限制近 20 年。

绿色和平呼吁这些大品牌服装履行去毒"承诺在其全球的供应链及所有產品上,淘汰所有的有毒有害物质。

多国已限用·林杰樑:工业上无禁用 NPE

绿色和平组织公佈服饰抽验结果,林口长庚医院临床毒物科主任林杰樑表示说,NPE 目前在工业上並无禁用,不过许多国家已经限用,用於清洁剂及衣服呈色,清洁剂有规定使用標准,不过用於衣服製程中则无规定,呼吁纺织相关行业不要使用 NPE,建议洗后再穿。

他指,芳香胺是禁用的,过去用於衣服染料,透过皮肤吸收久了后恐致膀胱癌;小分子塑化剂在台湾是限用。

皮肤科医师赵昭明表示,选购衣服时也要注意原產地及材质標示,衣服顏色不要太鲜艷,买回家时应先清洗后再穿。 

中国名酒含塑化剂

官方查“酒鬼"含毒事件‧中国业界:白酒越高档越多塑化剂


转载自【星洲日报·国际】(中国‧北京20日讯)中国名酒“酒鬼"惊传含有超標“塑化剂"成份,引发消费者恐慌。

中国酒业协会週一晚发表声明指出,其实白酒都含有塑化剂成份,而且越高档的白酒含量越高。

21 世纪网报导,被称为“天下第一酒"的名酒  [酒鬼] ,被检测出 3 种塑化剂成份,其中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)超標 260%(即2.6倍)。湖南省质量技术监督局表示,已责成湘西州质监局展开执法检查,將依法从严查处违法行为。

塑化剂透过基因祸害下一代

专家指塑化剂毒性比三聚氰胺毒 20 倍,长期饮用会损害男性生殖能力,对心血管、肝臟和泌尿系统都会很大伤害,还会透过基因遗传给下一代。

中酒业回应事件称,全国白酒都含塑化剂,最高超標达 8 倍,最低也超標 1.7 倍,越高档名酒含量较高!
声明称,塑化剂成份主要源於生產和贮存环节中的塑料物体,白酒生產的发酵环节並不会產生塑化剂。

声明强调,媒体有关白酒塑化剂超標的报导不正確,因为目前中国並没有规定白酒塑化剂含量標准,同时中国品牌白酒的塑化剂含量远低於国外食品標准允许指標。

中国酒商表示,过去中国传统白酒的酿造方法,是以粮穀为原料,加入佈满微生物的麴块,在没添加任何非天然物质的状態下,酿造出纯净的酒香。


传中市场70%是化学白酒

但这种传统白酒酿造工业,基本上在文革之后就已宣告覆灭了。现在白酒的酿造方式,都是用酒精和香料相互勾兑,这在中国酒市早就是一个公开的秘密。

另外,也有知情酒商透露,目前中国市场上的白酒,至少有 60% 至 70% 是属於非纯粮酿造的化学白酒。这些“黑心毒酒"的存在,才是最严重的问题。

平民吃不起“酒鬼”幸灾乐祸 · “反腐急先锋断子绝孙酒”

“幸好这鬼酒太贵了,平民百姓都吃不起!"。號称“无上妙品"的酒鬼酒揭有毒后,不少民眾幸灾乐祸,给它构思新广告词:“反腐急先锋,断子绝孙酒。"

酒鬼酒1988年由原国企湘西吉首酒厂投產。在官方支持、政要讚赏及文化包装下,酒鬼酒的酒曾和沈从文的书、宋祖英的歌、黄永玉的画並列湘西四大名片,一度傲视茅台、五粮液成中国第一高价酒。

与中国其他贵价白酒一样,酒鬼酒是公款消费、送礼佳品,多数进了干部、领导的肚皮。
吸金的中国白酒业与官场文化甚至腐败向来密不可分,近期习近平接班以其名命名的习酒受追捧涨价是另一个例证。

14 November 2012

看画

不开心的时候看看画,心会平静许多;
开心的时候赏画,锦上添花,心旷神怡。





中国画 · 水墨画 · 刘懋善

12 November 2012

染色茶叶、染色咸蛋、含铅皮蛋:有毒

【光明日报】“Teh tarik kurang manis”,三五好友聚集在嘛嘛档閒话家常,喝一杯印度拉茶,已成为大马人文化。大家以为拉茶少糖,对健康有益,孰不知被染色的红茶叶本身已暗藏杀机。

业內消息透露,本地熟食业所使用的红茶叶,当中 30% 40% 是染色红茶叶,在情况最严重的时候,几乎所有马来小食店、超过 60% 嘛嘛档及少於 10% 的华人茶餐室,都採用染色红茶叶。

由於红茶叶供不应求, 染色红茶叶被滥竽充数,填补市场需求。

追究箇中原因,小商家大吐苦水,哀嘆生意难做。

1983 年食品法令及 1985 年食品条例 2603)条文严禁茶叶添加任何染色素,违规者面对 2 万令吉罚款,或坐牢不超过 5 年,或两者兼施。由於红茶叶供不应求,染色红茶叶被滥竽充数,填补市场需求。

多年来,执法单位一再取缔,仍无法杜绝市面上的染色红茶叶,反而当局的严厉打击,让染色红茶叶售价身价大涨,从每公斤 7 令吉飆涨至 11 令吉,利润倍增两三倍,反观品质中等的普通红茶叶也不过是每公斤不超过 12 令吉。


可多赚 2 倍利润

大马標准消费人协会总执行长拉娜德维说,染色茶叶问题也反映了政府执法单位的问题,政府接到投诉才会展开取缔行动,没有持续性的执法及监督。

无良业者知道执法人员进行取缔后,暂时收起染色茶叶,等到执法人员鬆懈之后,消费者渐渐忘记黑心茶叶之后,又继续使用染色茶叶。

用染色红茶冲泡拉茶是欺骗顾客的行为,但是普罗大眾误以为冲泡出来的红茶,顏色越浓就是上等茶,长期饮用染色红茶,將损害健康。

卫生部食品安全及品质组主任阿都拉欣披露,市面上的染色茶叶是由合格的染色粉所加工,不过这些染色粉只可使用在食物上,茶叶则是被禁止加入任何色素。

大马茶叶商会透露,染色红茶叶存在大马数十年,这些染色红茶每公斤的售价比原装红茶便宜得多,嘛嘛档业者可多赚2倍的利润。

由於染色红茶顏色比一般红茶较浓厚,业者可以用以冲泡更多的茶,赚取更多利润,因此受到嘛嘛档业者的欢迎。

商会:少数茶室用染色茶

根据马来西亚茶业商会主席张钧强指出,大马只有少於10%的华裔茶餐室採用染色红茶粉。
原因是华裔对茶叶品质及味道要求甚高,味道较淡薄的染色红茶不受华裔欢迎。

前卫生部长拿督斯里蔡细歷当年在处理染色红茶叶课题时,採取迅速及雷厉的行动打击染色红茶叶活动,收效很大。

当时还有一两间生產染色红茶叶的厂商被取缔,染色红茶叶在短时间內几乎在市场上消失。

他表示,执法当局在当年迅速行动,就连他也不能豁免被调查,最后证明他並没有涉及染色红茶叶活动。

据瞭解,卫生部执法组在2006年展开全国监督及取缔任何涉及使用染色红茶粉的餐馆及小食店业者或售卖染色茶叶的杂货商及厂商,加上马来西亚茶业商会推动不喝染色的拉茶运动收效,染色红茶叶的市场逐步萎缩至仅限北马、东海岸及南马地区的马来小食档採用,少部份嘛嘛档仍有使用,但华人茶餐室几近绝跡。


多数咸蛋含高量苏丹红

蛋黄鲜亮含致癌物

咸蛋和皮蛋是大马人最喜欢的食品之一,三大种族都习惯咸蛋配白粥,华人尤其喜欢皮蛋瘦肉粥或皮蛋配酸薑、莧菜皮蛋汤等。如今,爱吃咸蛋和皮蛋的人士可要当心了,市面出现致癌黑心蛋。

大马標准消费人协会化验结果显示,本地多个品牌的咸蛋和皮蛋含有人造色素苏丹红一號,吃进肚子,会有致癌风险。

大马標准消费人协会总执行长拉娜德维告诉《光明日报》明查特工队,市面有不道德商家利用苏丹红一號,將蛋黄的顏色染得更加鲜艷,吸引更多人购买。

苏丹红是一种人造化学染色料,一般用於碳氢溶剂、油、蜡和塑胶等物质的染色料,不能用於食品,而且从蛋的外观上很难分辨出是否含有苏丹红。

根据1985食品管制法令,政府严禁商家使用苏丹红一號人造色素,当局所允许使用的染色剂清单一及二,皆没列出这类染色剂。

拉娜德维说:根据我们在 2010 年的调查,蛋农是在饲料加入苏丹红的染色剂,鸡鸭吃下后,所孵出来的鸭蛋、鸡蛋的蛋黄更加鲜亮。

根据国际標准,这类型染色剂在食品的含量最多只能达1ppm,而大马標准消费人协会的化验结果显示,两家供应商的產品,都超过安全水平。

咸蛋盐分高

惊人的是,该协会是在多家霸级市场及超级市场进行抽样化验,发现大多数品牌的咸蛋和皮蛋的苏丹红一號含量颇高。

拉娜说,3家专门供应皮蛋及咸蛋给巴生谷霸级市场及超级市场的主要供应商,其中两家的產品含有苏丹红人造色素。

她指出,所幸的是,咸蛋盐分高,民眾不会每天食用,华人通常在中秋节吃月饼、端午节吃粽子才会放蛋黄。

而皮蛋也不像鸡蛋般普遍的食物,只有一些菜肴才会加入皮蛋。

政府未执法· 市场恐有黑心蛋

黑心咸蛋及黑心皮蛋被揭发约一年,政府尚未採取行动,拉娜担心,黑心蛋仍继续在市场发售。

我们曾向农业及农基工业部及卫生部反映此事,可惜两个部门负责人都没有回应,我们甚至不知道有关部门是否已执法。

大马標准消费人协会促请卫生部修改条例,清楚阐明用苏丹红为食物染色是违法行为,因为许多生產商不知道本身已违法。

早在2003年已经发现皮蛋及咸蛋含有苏丹红一號,农业部执法一阵子,没有持续执法及监管,无良商家为了赚钱,毒蛋问题才会再次发生

皮蛋含铅对儿童无益 ~ 吃皮蛋中毒?


专家提醒:儘量少吃,儿童对铅敏感最好不吃

黑心咸蛋及皮蛋被揭发约一年,政府尚未採取行动, 拉娜担心,黑心蛋仍继续在市场发售。


皮蛋一直以来都是家常食品。比如平常市民熬的皮蛋瘦肉粥、凉拌皮蛋等。然而,传统的皮蛋加工製作过程中,常常使用铅为原料,容易造成皮蛋中大量铅残留。经常食用含铅量高的皮蛋,造成铅在人体中的累积,对人体的神经系统、免疫系统、肾臟等產生危害,特別对儿童的认知和行为功能有一定的影响。

皮蛋,吃还是不吃?


专家:儘量少吃不宜长期吃

添加剂专家指出,皮蛋含铅超標的事情一直都存在。在人们的生活当中,铅的污染比较严重。从空气中汽油燃烧以及尾气排放,饮用水中自来水管污染水质等等都会接触到。但是,摄入多少才安全?专家认为,没有一个准確的数字来界定,举例,酒喝多了会酒精中毒,但是適量饮酒是没有问题的,而且是利於健康的。

从安全角度来讲,专家建议市民少吃皮蛋,而且不要一次性吃太多,不宜长期食用。

针对皮蛋铅超標,在购买时,最好购买无铅皮蛋。即使是无铅皮蛋也不是完全无铅,只不过是铅含量比传统皮蛋低很多而已。无铅皮蛋是用硫酸铜与硫酸锌等原料製作而成,代替了传统的氧化铅和氧化铜,重金属含量大为减少。微量的铅对成年人的健康影响不大,但对儿童来说,无铅皮蛋也以少吃或不吃为好,因为儿童对铅非常敏感,肠道內的吸收率高达50%

你知道吗?--苏丹红是化学染色料

苏丹红一號是一种用於彩色蜡、油脂、汽油、溶剂和鞋油等的增色添加剂,还可以用於焰火礼花的著色。在日常接触的物品中,家用的红色地板蜡或红色鞋油通常含有苏丹红一號的成份。

国际癌症研究机构將苏丹红一號归为第三类可致癌物质,这类物质缺乏足够直接使人类致癌的证据,但却具有潜在致癌危险的物质。

不过,有研究说明,苏丹红一號染料可以导致动物患上癌症。研究员为一只小鼠註射了苏丹红一號,小鼠的肝臟长了肿瘤;在將染料直接註射入膀胱后,膀胱也开始生长肿瘤。

欧盟据此自1995年起禁止使用苏丹红一號作为食品添加剂。

苏丹红一號可能的致癌机理是其在人体內分解出苯胺,诱发肝臟细胞的基因发生变异,而增加人类患癌症的危险性。