28 December 2012

2012 年度汉字 --改


2012 年度汉字出炉了好几天,马来西亚的年度汉字选出了 “改”这个单字,表示大家都期待政局、生活能有所改变。


2012 年,马来西亚上演了多场集会、游行与示威。“哦”这个字,虽然没有出现在入围名单里,但却非常适合概括这些频繁的示威活动~

造字解说


我 & 哦 的由来

我,早期甲骨文像一种有许多利齿的武器,是戌*  的变形,即超级的戌,无人可敌的威猛战器。

造字本义:手持大戌,呐喊示威。晚期甲骨文简化了齿形。

金文承续晚期甲骨文字形。

篆文有所变形,利齿状被写成了“禾”,整个字形由甲骨文的独体字变成了“禾”、“戈”组合的合体字。

当“我”演变成代词后,后人再加“口”另造“哦”,表示呐喊示威

14 December 2012

21-12-2012

如果 21-12-2012 真是世界末日,

那么我的博文就发不完了,

还有好多话来不及说......  



06 December 2012

暖化?别闹了!


这本书,《 暖化? 别闹了! 》华文版才一共 205 页,从 135 – 205 页的注释与参考文献就占了 70 页,也即是无关重要的内容就占了本书的 1/3 的版位。

书价 RM 41.49,似乎有种欺骗消费人的嫌疑。如果是这样也罢,让人失望的事还在后头呢。如果要形容这本书,就只有一个字---- “烂”。

【可点击放大图片】

《暖化? 別鬧了! 》     作者: 隆柏格
Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming / by: Bjorn Lomborg

虽然这书里面也提出了造成暖化的各种人为因素,但说到解决方案,则是让人吐血,不但没有对症下药,还拖泥带水扯到与环保无关的其他问题上去。

其实,说白了,就是在斤斤计较,为政府计算开支!作者计算到若要保持平均温度不继续上升,减碳及停止全球暖化的恶化,所要付出的金钱代价是个天文数字!

作者提议,若把对应全球暖化的金钱拿来救济饥民[1],在海边建造防水堤[2],冬天时提供完善暖气系统[3]等,做好各种应对全球暖化与其所带来灾害的措施,就能挽救更多生命。

然而,这些只能说是头痛医头,脚痛医脚的方法,根本没有把全球暖化的根源-- -- 即减低碳排放量的问题给解决掉,!

虽然暖化带来的灾难[4]是一年比一年频繁与严重,悲伤的是联合国全球暖化会议并未取得积极进展,而且,这些年来,联合国全球暖化会议还余留着《 暖化? 别闹了! 》这套理论的影子。

如果当下还再继续这样计较而迟迟不付诸于行动,那么日后恐怕就要付出更高代价!

作者这是拯救自己的名利[5],拯救政府,拯救商业集团[6],而不是在拯救地球与人类!(阅读报告·完·Ally Theanlyn

[1]多年来非洲难民需要庞大资金来给予援助
[2]应对冰川融化,海平面上升。
[3]暖气系统完善了,任冬天再冷,也不会再有人被冻死。
[4] 干旱导致农作物失收,风灾,大雨及水灾对农田居所的破坏。
[5] 作者是阴谋论者,卖书是收入来源之一,早前另一著作为《持疑的环保论者》。
[6]担忧石油业被绿色能源取代

另一本书的摘要:-

点击连接---> 改变世界的6


延伸阅读:-

另外,全球暖化的成因也成为争议性问题。阴谋论者与假专家 (非气候专家)否认全球暖化是人类活动所造成的。而全球暖化气候专家则坚持人为因素是主要因素,同时承认自然现象如太阳黑子活跃期会加剧暖化情况。

气候专家邀请阴谋论者及关注暖化问题的非气候学术专家进行辩论,然而屡次邀请皆石沉大海。气候专家也不满非此领域的“专家”在没有亲自收集数据以及没有做观测与研究就随意在不相干的经济杂志上发表否定全球暖化的论文误导读者。

网络摘文(新闻):-

(1) Fox News Climate Coverage 93% Wrong, Report Finds

25-Sept-2012 Primetime coverage of global warming at Fox News is overwhelmingly misleading, according to a new report that finds the same is true of climate change information in the Wall Street Journal op-ed pages.

Both outlets are owned by Rupert Murdoch's media company News Corporation. The analysis by the science-policy nonprofit Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) finds that 93 percent of primetime program discussions of global warming on Fox News are inaccurate, as are 81 percent of Wall Street Journal editorials on the subject.

"It's like they were writing and talking about some sort of bizarre world where climate change isn't happening," study author Aaron Huertas, a press secretary at UCS, told LiveScience.

"It's clear that we're not having a fact-based dialogue about climate change," Huertas added.

The report, available online, focused on Fox News and the Journal because of both anecdotal and academic reports suggesting high levels of misleading climate chatter in each. UCS researchers combed through six months of Fox News primetime programs (from February 2012 to July 2012) and one year of Wall Street Journal op-eds (from August 2011 to July 2012), for discussions of global warming.
Fox's climate problems

The researchers found that Fox News and the Journal were consistently dismissive of the established scientific consensus that climate change is happening and that human activities are the main driver.
For example, a statement aired on a primetime Fox News show on April 11 says, "I thought we were getting warmer. But in the '70s, it was, look out, we're all going to freeze."

The statement refers to some research in the 1970s that suggested a cooling trend, exacerbated by pollutants called aerosols (also known as smog). However, a greater number of papers, which represented consensus in the science community, in the 1970s predicted warming, according to Skeptical Science, a climate change communication website maintained by University of Queensland physicist John Cook. Temperature records have since improved, revealing the cooling trend was confined to northern landmasses.
The most common climate mistakes on Fox News involved misleading statements on basic climate science, or simple undermining and disparaging of the field of climate science. For example, on March 23, one on-air personality referred to global warming as a "hoax and fraud."

Misleading opinions

The misrepresentations in Wall Street Journal op-eds similarly twisted the science and disparaged the field, UCS said, though there were also examples of disparaging individual scientists, including calling NASA climate scientist James Hansen a "global-warming alarmist."

One March 9 column by Robert Tracinski called global warming a "bubble" and decried the "failure of the global warming theory itself" and "the credibility of its advocates."

Fox News and the Wall Street Journal did not respond to LiveScience's requests for comment. The organizations have not responded to UCS either, Huertas said, though they were informed of the report before it was made public.

The goal of the report, according to the UCS, is not to shut down legitimate debate on the appropriateness of various climate policies.

"It is entirely appropriate to disagree with specific actions or policies aimed at addressing climate change while accepting the clearly established findings of climate science," the authors wrote. "And while it is appropriate to question new science as it emerges, it is misleading to reject or sow doubt about established science — in this case, the overwhelming body of evidence that human-caused climate change is occurring."

The organization called on News Corp. to examine their climate-change reporting standards and to help their staff differentiate between opinions on global warming and scientific fact.
"This is happening no matter what, so we can have a sober adult conversation about it and figure out what to do, or we can turn it into another hot-button ideological issue," Heurtas said. "Frankly, we already have enough hot-button ideological issues. I don't think we need another one."


(2)  Fossil fuel subsidies in focus at climate talks

03 DEC 2012, DOHA, Qatar

03 DEC 2012, DOHA, Qatar (AP) — Hassan al-Kubaisi considers it a gift from above that drivers in oil- and gas-rich Qatar only have to pay $1 per gallon at the pump.

"Thank God that our country is an oil producer and the price of gasoline is one of the lowest," al-Kubaisi said, filling up his Toyota Land Cruiser at a gas station in Doha. "God has given us a blessing."

To those looking for a global response to climate change, it's more like a curse.

Qatar — the host of U.N. climate talks that entered their final week Monday — is among dozens of countries that keep gas prices artificially low through subsidies that exceeded $500 billion globally last year.

Renewable energy worldwide received six times less support — an imbalance that is just starting to earn attention in the divisive negotiations on curbing the carbon emissions blamed for heating the planet."We need to stop funding the problem, and start funding the solution," said Steve Kretzmann, of Oil Change International, an advocacy group for clean energy.
His group presented research Monday showing that in addition to the fuel subsidies in developing countries, rich nations in 2011 gave more than $58 billion in tax breaks and other production subsidies to the fossil fuel industry. The U.S. figure was $13 billion.

The Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has calculated that removing fossil fuel subsidies could reduce carbon emissions by more than 10 percent by 2050.

Yet the argument is just recently gaining traction in climate negotiations, which in two decades have failed to halt the rising temperatures that are melting Arctic ice, raising sea levels and shifting weather patterns with impacts on droughts and floods.

In Doha, the talks have been slowed by wrangling over financial aid to help poor countries cope with global warming and how to divide carbon emissions rights until 2020 when a new planned climate treaty is supposed to enter force. Calls are now intensifying to include fossil fuel subsidies as a key part of the discussion.

"I think it is manifestly clear ... that this is a massive missing piece of the climate change jigsaw puzzle," said Tim Groser, New Zealand's minister for climate change.

He is spearheading an initiative backed by Scandinavian countries and some developing countries to put fuel subsidies on the agenda in various forums, citing the U.N. talks as a "natural home" for the debate.

The G-20 called for their elimination in 2009, and the issue also came up at the U.N. earth summit in Rio de Janeiro earlier this year. Frustrated that not much has happened since, European Union climate commissioner Connie Hedegaard said Monday she planned to raise the issue with environment ministers on the sidelines of the talks in Doha.

Many developing countries are positive toward phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, not just to protect the climate but to balance budgets. Subsidies introduced as a form of welfare benefit decades ago have become an increasing burden to many countries as oil prices soar.

"We are reviewing the subsidy periodically in the context of the total economy for Qatar," the tiny Persian gulf country's energy minister, Mohammed bin Saleh al-Sada, told reporters Monday.

Qatar's National Development Strategy 2011-2016 states it more bluntly, saying fuel subsides are "at odds with the aspirations" and sustainability objectives of the wealthy emirate.

The problem is that getting rid of them comes with a heavy political price.

When Jordan raised fuel prices last month, angry crowds poured into the streets, torching police cars, government offices and private banks in the most sustained protests to hit the country since the start of the Arab unrest. One person was killed and 75 others were injured in the violence.

Nigeria, Indonesia, India and Sudan have also seen violent protests this year as governments tried to bring fuel prices closer to market rates.

Iran has used a phased approach to lift fuel subsidies over the past several years, but its pump prices remain among the cheapest in the world.

"People perceive it as something that the government is taking away from them," said Kretzmann. "The trick is we need to do it in a way that doesn't harm the poor."

The International Energy Agency found in 2010 that fuel subsidies are not an effective measure against poverty because only 8 percent of such subsidies reached the bottom 20 percent of income earners.

The IEA, which only looked at consumption subsidies, this year said they "remain most prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, where momentum toward their reform appears to have been lost."

In the U.S., environmental groups say fossil fuel subsidies include tax breaks, the foreign tax credit and the credit for production of nonconventional fuels.

Industry groups, like the Independent Petroleum Association of America, are against removing such support, saying that would harm smaller companies, rather than the big oil giants.

In Doha, Mohammed Adow, a climate activist with Christian Aid, called all fuel subsidies "reckless and dangerous," but described removing subsidies on the production side as "low-hanging fruit" for governments if they are serious about dealing with climate change.

"It's going to oil and coal companies that don't need it in the first place," he said.
___
Associated Press writers Abdullah Rebhy in Doha, Qatar, and Brian Murphy in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, contributed to this report


(3) Former climate change skeptic now says global warming is man-made

July 31, 2012- He finally came around to what other climate scientists have been spouting for years. Richard A. Muller, a physics professor at the University of California-Berkeley, announced over the weekend that his much-publicized investigation into climate data has found that humans' production of carbon dioxide is causing the world to slowly warm up. And this process could speed up dramatically in the coming years.

Muller's conclusions attract special attention because of his vocal self-styling as a converted climate change skeptic. Muller criticized global warming studies for sloppy and self-serving data selection and a lack of transparency that obscured errors; he then lambasted fellow scientists for circling the wagons and calling any climate change deniers wrong. Muller says he's still upset that the American Physical Society declared the evidence for warming "incontrovertible" a few years ago in an official statement.

"We don't do things in science that are incontrovertible," Muller said in an interview with Yahoo News.

Muller took matters into his own hands and embarked on his own investigation into the data with his daughter Elizabeth and a team of scientists two years ago. His Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project attracted funding from the Charles Koch Charitable Foundation, the nonprofit outfit of a wealthy businessman who denies that global warming is happening. Three years later, Muller ended up surprising himself when his research confirmed everything those same studies that drew his skepticism concluded, and then some. Muller says his study's results are more reliable than many previous ones because he intentionally avoided the data pitfalls he objected to, such as only using a portion of the global temperatures available. (He expounds on his methods here.)

Muller's study has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, but he says he plans to do so at some point. One climate scientist, Benjamin D. Santer, told the Los Angeles Times he thinks posting the study online and not in a journal is in "the spirit of publicity, not the spirit of science" and may do more to hurt the global warming cause than help it. But Muller wants to get feedback on his methods and to share his results with everyone, avoiding what he sees as a secrecy and lack of transparency that surrounded earlier climate change studies.

Though Muller is now entirely convinced that the Earth is warming due to man-made causes, he still expresses disdain for people who try to raise passions around the issue by pointing to local weather events, such as the drought scorching up America's Midwest right now, as proof of the phenomenon. (He attributes the drought to La Niña, a temporary cooling of the ocean.) The effects of global warming on local weather patterns are unknown, and even as two-thirds of the world has heated up, another one-third has shown a gradual cooling over the past 250 years, he says. The overall effect is a troubling global warming, but Muller has no patience for simplifications that stray from the truth.

"I'm personally very worried," he says of global warming. Muller says that so far the warming has been "tiny," but that everything points to the process speeding up. "I personally suspect that it will be bad."

Muller is now wading into another controversy, by endorsing the process of natural gas extraction called fracking for developing countries, which tend to rely more on coal. Coal production creates more carbon dioxide, but fracking has also drawn its share of environmentalist critics.
"I believe the only kind of action that is sustainable is that which is profitable, and fortunately we can do that," he says. "We can become much more energy efficient."




19 Sept 2012, WASHINGTON (AP) — In a critical climate indicator showing an ever warming world, the amount of ice in the Arctic Ocean shrank to an all-time low this year, obliterating old records.

The ice cap at the North Pole measured 1.32 million square miles on Sunday. That's 18 percent smaller than the previous record of 1.61 million square miles set in 2007, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. Records go back to 1979 based on satellite tracking.

On top of that, we're smashing a record that smashed a record," said data center scientist Walt Meier. Sea ice shrank in 2007 to levels 22 percent below the previous record of 2005.

Ice in the Arctic melts in summer and grows in winter, and it started growing again on Monday. In the 1980s, Meier said, summer sea ice would cover an area slightly smaller than the Lower 48 states. Now it is about half that.

Man-made global warming has melted more sea ice and made it thinner over the last couple decades with it getting much more extreme this year, surprisingly so, said snow and ice data center director Mark Serreze.

"Recently the loss of summer ice has accelerated and the six lowest September ice extents have all been in the past six years," Serreze said. "I think that's quite remarkable."

Serreze said except for one strong storm that contributed to the ice loss, this summer melt was more from the steady effects of day-to-day global warming. But he and others say the polar regions are where the globe first sees the signs of climate change.

"Arctic sea ice is one of the most sensitive of nature's thermometers," said Jason Box, an Ohio State University polar researcher.
What happens in the Arctic changes climate all over the rest of the world, scientists have reported in studies.
The ice in the Arctic "essentially acts like an air conditioner by keeping things cooler," Meier said. And when sea ice melts more, it's like the air conditioner isn't running efficiently, he said.

Sea ice reflects more than 90 percent of the sun's heat off the Earth, but when it is replaced by the darker open ocean, more than half of the heat is absorbed into the water, Meier said.
Scientists at the snow and ice data center said their computer models show an Arctic that would be essentially free of ice in the summer by 2050, but they add that current trends show ice melting faster than the computers are predicting.

|

03 December 2012

各种传言都不足信‧美国太空署驳2012末日论

转载:星洲·国际 (美国‧纽约1日讯)12月21日,会是世界末日吗?

踏入12月,距离传说中的世界末日只剩3周。有人把这传言当笑话听,但亦有人却抱寧可信其有心態,甚至有青少年担心得寢食难安,甚至有自杀倾向。美国科学家就反驳各式末日论以释除恐惧,並狠斥散播谣言的人“邪恶"。

末日谣言和恐惧源自对马雅历法的错误理解,认为第13个伯克盾历周期结束,就是世界末日。已故阿塞拜疆裔美国作家西欣在1976年著书中称,美索不达米亚的苏美尔人文献中,有提及一枚名叫Nibiru的流浪行星,不绕任何恒星公转,会在2012年12月21日撞向地球,毁灭全人类。

行星撞地球只是幻象

美国太空总署(NASA)科学家驳斥了这说法。天体生物学家莫里森说:“这说法完全是错的,只是创作出来的幻象。"

NASA在最近设立的资讯网页亦说:“若Nibiru或X行星真的存在,2012年会撞向地球,天文学家早在至少十年前就可侦测到,现在即使用肉眼都看得到。"对於有传地球的磁场会突然逆转、地球会运行近3万光年跌入银河系中央的黑洞等,科学家都一概否定。

年轻人寢食难安想自杀

有关另一广泛流传的说法,指整个地球会在12月23至25日断电。太阳物理学家古哈塔库尔吉承认,现时太阳进入活跃期,电磁能量增加,可对地球的电子和导航系统有影响,但跟以往同类情况没有分別。

莫里森批评:“这些末日论,有人会当作笑话,有人会觉得神秘,亦有一班人很忧虑。"他指NASA收到大量来自深感忧虑人士的查询电邮和信件,当中大部份是年轻人和孩子,因为担心世界末日而寢食难安,甚至有自杀倾向。

他说:“在互联网散播谣言嚇唬孩子的人,很邪恶。"

各式末日论
‧马雅历法指2012年12月21日世界末日,流浪行星Nibiru撞击地球,毁灭人类
‧地球磁场会突然逆转
‧地球运行近3万光年,墮入银河系中央的黑洞
‧全地球12月23至25日断电,漆黑一片

气候变化更可怕
地球最大威胁来自人类

人类对於世界末日的预言一直就有,但直到今天,没有一个实现。例如,1982年出现的“九星连珠",还有《圣经‧启示录》中表明2011年5月21日,上帝將因为人类的罪孽而毁灭世界的预言都失效。
专家认为,担心人类命运的焦点不应放在各种宇宙灾难,而应该集中在更实在的问题,例如气候变化。太阳物理学家亚当斯说:“在2012年,这年年底及未来,地球面对最大的威胁,只是来自人类本身。"人类对於自然生態的过度攫取,也成为自然灾害发生的诱导,甚至主导因素。最典型的要数近年来的海平面上升问题。海平面上升是由全球气候变暖、极地冰川融化、上层海水变热膨胀等原因引起的。

因此,与其相信那些不切实际的末日预言,不如脚踏实地保护好我们身边的生態环境。人类真正的“诺亚方舟",是立即行动起来,保护生態、保护环境。

俄罗斯版“方舟"

被称为“诺亚方舟"的壳形酒店由俄罗斯雷米工作室设计,並受到国际建筑师协会减灾建筑项目的支持。“诺亚方舟"酒店外观呈壳形,这使得建筑各部份受力均衡,因此,该建筑也可以抵御地震影响。此外,透明的酒店外壳保证了日光可以透入房间,减少了对照明需求,达到节能的目的。为了確保室內明亮,建筑物外壳上还铺有一层自我清洁涂层。

壳形酒店是一个安全、自给自足的生物圈。建筑內部温室般的环境不仅使植被繁茂,而且提昇了空气质量,並提供了充足的食物来源。壳形酒店利用太阳能电池板和雨水收集係统为酒店住客提供能源和水源。

日本版“方舟"

日本版“诺亚方舟"小巧而实用。且不说世界末日是否会来临,作为地震、海啸频发的日本,发明应急逃难的小型“诺亚方舟"是很有必要的。日本的这款“诺亚方舟"是由日本CosmoPower公司製造的,方舟为球形,直径约1.2米,有四个座位,一个舱口,一扇玻璃窗及两个通风排水孔。救生舱由玻璃钢製成,这是因为玻璃钢比钢轻,但比钢更结实,这也使得救生舱可以漂浮在水面上,並且可以承受一定的碰撞。救生舱体积也足够小,普通家庭均可將其放置在家中,外观为亮黄色,灾后救援过程中容易搜救。目前,日本的这款“诺亚方舟"已经开始销售,標准版售价为3800美元。

中国新疆版“方舟"

新疆生產建设兵团农一师塔里木河南岸的农业连队的陆政海害怕2012年世界末日来临,洪水淹没家园,所以把家中所有积蓄拿出来製造了这艘船,以便大家可以在船上避难。

陆政海介绍,这艘相当於內陆河道中型舰船的大船,下水后將成为塔里木河流域最大的船,设计总长21.2米,宽15.5米,高5.6米,三台柴油发动机总动力与540匹马力相当,排水量140吨,目前已使用钢材60余吨,木材近10吨,建成后自重將达到80吨,全部由自己独立设计和製造。

法国版“方舟"

法国著名建筑设计师文森特‧卡勒波特设计了一艘匪夷所思的“未来版诺亚方舟"Lilypad,犹如一朵巨大的百合花盛开在海面上,可供5万人同时居住。

“未来版诺亚方舟"呈圆盘形状,直径达到1000米,上面修建有一些从数十米到数百米之间高低不等的流线型建筑,犹如花瓣一样。“未来版诺亚方舟"是一个真正的“双棲海上城市"———它的上半部份露出海面,是一座与陆地建筑没有区別的建筑;而整个城市的下半部份则浸没在水下,又令它犹如船只一样可以在海面上四处漂流。方舟上的设施几乎是应有尽有。据悉,它將拥有世界上最

大的海上体育馆、圆形剧院,医院、户外公园、高尔夫球场,让“海上居民"像居住在陆地上一样方便愜意。

2012年的12月21日倒底是不是世界末日也许也只有到了那天才会知道,但是即使12月21日不是世界末日,但世界上有些城市却也正在面临著末日消亡,一起来看世界八大即將消亡的城市,究竟有哪些呢!

冈比亚·班珠尔
“死亡"原因:海边水位提昇。
海洋水位提昇已经是全球化现象,对於冈比亚这个西非小国,他们的首都班珠尔正面临著被日渐上升的海水侵蚀甚至覆盖的危险。

意大利·那不勒斯
“死亡"原因:火山爆发。
座落在那不勒斯海湾的维苏威火山,每100年就会爆发一次,当年曾摧毁庞贝城,而最近一次爆发则是在1944年。一旦爆发,那不勒斯的400万居民將面临生命威胁。

意大利·威尼斯
“死亡"原因:下沉。
水城在过去1000年里其实一直在下沉,但近几个世纪,它的下沉速度在加快,过去100年它已经下沉了24厘米。政府开展了工程计划以保护城市的下沉,但结果如何则没有人可以预计。

俄罗斯·伊凡诺沃
“死亡"原因:人口缩减。
前苏联时代纺织品中心,大约有44.8万的人口,但自从1990年开始,女性人口超过男性、出生率下降、死亡率增加等等原因令人口锐减,年轻人不断迁移到不远的莫斯科,这个城市已经全部看不到现代化的工业。

美国·三藩市
“死亡"原因:地震。
根据加利福尼亚大学的研究,在2086年之前,三藩市有75%的机会遭遇一场7级以上的大地震。

墨西哥·墨西哥城
“死亡"原因:陆地下沉,食水短缺。
坐落在含水土层之上,城市中2000万居民每次取地下水饮用,城市都会產生下陷的可能。
据估计,城市中部份地方在过去100年里下降了9米。而更糟糕的是,城市下方土层中的水份,已经出现乾涸的跡象。

美国·底特律
“死亡"原因:人口缩减。
从1950年起,底特律的人口已经减少三分一,由於城市失业率超过10%,预计到2030年前,人口都会持续缓慢但稳定减少。在2100年前,底特律可能已经面目全非。

马里·廷巴克图
“死亡"原因:荒漠化荒漠化,也即是沙漠中的沙丘逐步掩盖绿洲。
撒哈拉沙漠南部边缘的几个城市都遇到这样的威胁,其中危机最大的就是廷巴克图。这个歷史超过1000年的城市,部份地区已经半埋於沙中。